Location : Republic of Yemen lies in the south of the Arabian Peninsula in the south-west of the continent of Asia. It is bounded on the north by Saudi Arabia, on the south Arabian Sea and Gulf of Aden, on the east by the Sultanate of Oman and the Red Sea to the west.
Official name: Republic of Yemen.
Sana'a is the capital of the Republic of Yemen and has the administrative division of the Republic of Yemen (20) governorates in addition to the secretariat of the capital.
National flag : a rectangular shape was introduced by two-thirds of its length. The flag consists of three colors evenly spaced; red at the top, white in the middle and black at the bottom.
Red: The symbol of the revolution.
White: symbolizes the principles of the revolution and its clarity.
Black symbolizes despotic regime prior to the revolution.
Motto: The motto of the Republic of Yemen is an eagle that symbolizes the power of the people and soars in the horizon of freedom, carrying in its wings on the national flag, and mounted on a base that reads: Republic of Yemen.
Religion and Language: Islam is the state religion and Arabic is the official language.
National currency: Rial
Local Time: +3 hours ahead of GMT throughout the year.
Electricity: 220 volts / 250 Hz.
International: country code 967 +
Ports of the Republic of Yemen:
Air : (Sana'a International Airport - Aden International Airport - Taiz International Airport - Airport Hodeidah International Airport - Mukalla International Airport - Seoun).
Land : (Haradh - Buka – Ilbain – Shihn - Sarfait– al-Wadi'a).
Sea : (Port of Aden - Port of Mokha - Port of Hodeidah - Port of Mukalla - Port Nashtoon - Port Qishn Sayhut - Port Dhabba - Bir Ali Port - the port of Balhaf - Port Ruddum - Port Dhubab - Port Khokha - Salif Port - Port of Ras Issa - Port Akhawba - Port Luhayya - Port MIDI).
Regime in the Republic of Yemen: Republican and Democrat, the people and the owners of the power. They exercise it directly through referendums and general elections, and activities, carried out indirectly through the legislative, executive and judicial authorities or through elected local councils. The political system in the Republic of Yemen is based on political and party pluralism , peaceful transition of power is secured through general election.
President: The President of the Republic of Yemen is the head of state who is elected directly by the people in competitive elections with the participation of a number of candidates. Victory requires the President to obtain the majority vote of the electorate. And the presidential term of seven years from the date he is sworn in. The post of President of the Republic is not allowed to be taken by one person more than two presidential terms.
Local authority: the local authority is a form of practice in governance in Yemen and the achievement of this process through the rules and constitutional and legal systems which are based on the principle of administrative and financial decentralization and the expansion of opportunities for participation in the formulation of policies and plans, programs and decision-making and community participation in decision-making for the conduct of their daily lives and develop their standard of living as well as the control and supervision on the functioning of the executive organs in the various governorates and directorates, and the Republic of Yemen is divided administratively under the system of local authority to (21) counties, including the Secretariat of the capital of Yemen is introduced during the year 2004, the governorates are divided into: (333) Directorate, (2200) Uzla (district) in addition to 36,986 villages. There are 5620 polling centers.
The population of the Republic in accordance with the final results of the General Census of Population and Housing and facilities of 200 was 4 (19.685.161) and the number of inhabitants of the Republic of Yemen to the estimated 20,901,082 people in 2006. The population is growing at a rate (3%) and represents the male population (10,656,919) people, and by 50.99% of the total population. It also represents the female population (10,244,162) people, and by 49.01% of the total population.
Mortality rate among infants less than a year (77.20) Child / A child.
Crude mortality rate is 8.99 per thousand births for 2004.
The average life expectancy at birth is 61.08 years.
The average number of individuals per family 7.14 and the average number of persons per dwelling 6.9 persons.
Topography : Yemen is characterized by diversity of its surface and therefore has been divided into five major geographic regions are:
Coastal plain region: It extends sporadically along the coast of Yemen, where mountains and hills cut to reach directly into the sea in more than one place, therefore, the territory of the coastal plain of Yemen on the plains include the following: (Tihama plain – Tuban plain- - Mayfa'a Ahwar plain – Plain, the eastern coastal province, located within al-Mahara).
The Coastal Plain region is characterized by a hot climate throughout the year with little rainfalls ranging between 50-100 mm per year, but it is considered an important agricultural region, especially the Tihama Plain due to the large valleys that penetrate this region and into which the floods caused by rainfall on the highlands.
The Mountain Highlands Region: to the Gulf of Aden and resulted in the Highlands, including Popup confined basins or mountain called Qiena fields, and mountains of this region is among the highest in the Arabian Peninsula, where it exceeds the average height in 2000, and go up to peaks of more than 3500 m, reaching the highest peak 3666 m in Mount Prophet Shuaib.
The line is the division of water in these mountains where the water descends through a number of valleys east and west and south, most important of these valleys: the valley of Moore - abeed - - Rimah - and Wadi Rasyan. The water of these wadis to the Red Sea. valleys draining into the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea: Valley Tuban, and bana and Wadi Wadi Hadramout.
Mountainous Basins Region: This region in the plains and basins in the mountainous highlands, mostly located in the eastern part of the water division line extending from the far north to the far south, including: Dhamar, Mabar, Sana'a Basin, Amran and Saada.
Plateau Areas Region: Located to the east and north of the highlands and parallel to them but it expands more towards the Empty Quarter and begins to decline gradually, towards the north and east slope, and most of the surface of this region constitutes a rocky desert with some valleys and especially the Wadi Hadhramaut, Wadi Hareib.
Desert Region: a sandy region almost devoid of vegetation except in parts of streams of rainwater that runs through after descending from mountainous areas adjacent to this region, and the altitude of the surface between 500-1000 m above sea level, and descended without interruption towards the north-east to the heart of the Empty Quarter.
The climate here is severe with high heat and temperature range, scarce rainfall and low humidity.
Yemeni islands: spread in the territorial waters of Yemen, many islands and its topography, climate and environment for most of these islands lie in the Red Sea including: Kamaran which is the largest inhabited island in the Red Sea, the islands of the Hanish archipelago, the island of Meon has a strategic location in the Strait of Bab al-Mandab the southern gate of the Red Sea is the most important islands in the Arabian Sea: Socotra Archipelago. Socotra Island is considered the largest island in this archipelago, which includes the addition to the island of Socotra Islands of Samaha and to study and Abdul Kori Socotra is characterized by abundant biodiversity of Socotra it contains about 680 plant species.
Climate: Yemen overlooks two seas: the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Yemen's climate did not benefit from the marine characteristics significantly only in raising the air humidity on the coast, where the impact of these two seas in modifying the properties of the republic's climate is very limited only to humidity and modifying some properties of wind While their role in the instability of air is limited. The amount of rainfall in Yemen in two seasons: the first season during the spring (March-April), and the second season in the summer (July-August), a wetter season of spring. The amount of rainfall varies over Yemen rainfall in Ibb - Taiz and Ad Dali and Yarim range between 600-1500 mm per year and less rainfall in the western coastal plain as it is in Hodeidah, Mokha. Average annual rainfall increases with height of 50 mm on the coast to about 1000 mm on the slopes of the mountains of facing the Red Sea.
In the southern and eastern coasts of the country's western coast average annual rainfall is estimated at about 50 mm per year in Aden, Alfayoush, code and Rayyan. The climate is characterized by high temperatures in summer, up to 42 m and goes down in winter to 25 Degrees, while temperatures gradually drop as we ascend toward higher elevations reaching on average about 33 m as a maximum and to 20 m as a minimum. In winter the minimum temperatures on the highlands go down as low as zero degrees, in the winter of 1986, the temperature in Dhamar went as low as low (- 12 m).
The humidity is high in the coastal plains up to more than 80%, while it goes down toward the inside and reaches its lowest levels in the desert areas with only15% humidity.
Economic policy: the Republic of Yemen has adopted an economic policy based on free market mechanisms that aim to raise the level of private sector's involvement in the economy, redefine the role of the state in economic activity, and work to establish the rule of law ,build the institutional infrastructure, the remove obstacles facing the sector, and ensuring economic stability and encourage the private sector to play a leading role in the development process and achieve economic growth, through a set of financial, monetary and administrative policies and procedures that encourage free trade, and worked to reform tax legislation, customs, investment and judiciary to improve the overall climate investment, in addition to the implementation of the privatization program designed to expand the areas of economic activities and attract national and foreign capital.
Yemen seen as a promising country with natural and economic resources important, where many of the wealth and riches have not so far been exploited economically, especially in the area of the mineral wealth (oil, gas and minerals) in addition to the fish, and the average annual growth rate of the Yemeni economy between (10-18%) at current prices, while this rate reaches the fixed prices between (2-4%) per annum, with a GDP of Yemen (18.9) billion in 2006, and the average per capita of approximately (869) dollars in the same year.
Agriculture Sector: Arable area in the Republic of Yemen to 3% of the total area of the Republic of Yemen, and the sector is the second production after the oil and contributes to a range between (10% -15%) of the value of GDP. Agricultural sector is the economy's largest employer, absorbing about 54% of the total labor force and source of income for more than 70% of the population.
Fish: fish sector is an important sector in the Yemeni economy. Yemen has a coastal strip with a length of more than 2000 km stretching across the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean as it scattered islands and bays, thereby creating an environment conducive to the presence of fish and marine life of more than 350 species and this reinforces the importance of this sector a promising future as a major source of food and an important resource for development and support of the national economy and a major source of employment.
Industry: Industry represents one of the main components of the national economy and contributes to about (10-15)% of the GDP, excluding oil industries. Food industries are ranked first and then the construction industry, including: cement, and tobacco products and metal. With the exception of the oil industry Yemen has a weak productive base and lacks diversity of its industry.
Trade and economic growth: The of real GDP registered a growth of 4.6% in 2005, compare to 3.9% in 2004, While population growth averaged during the period 3% this modest growth is not commensurate with increase in population, reflecting the weak economic growth.
The extractive industries sector ranked first in terms of growth rate in 2005 22.4% compared to a year in 2004 due to the following factors:
• Increasing oil prices worldwide in 2005.
• Improved production methods in the sector.
• increase the contribution of the oil sector, extractive by 35.72% in 2005.
• broadening the base of the extractive industrial production in Yemen
Transport, storage and communication in second place after the extractive industries sector which leads the other service sectors of production, with an average growth in 2005 (7.96) percentage points compared with growth in 2004 and this increase is due to the following factors:
• relative improvement witnessed by the transport sector during the comparison period in the form of improved infrastructure of roads, ports and airports.
• Increasing oil prices worldwide in 2005.
• Connect the telecommunications sector to the status of vital infrastructure and the infrastructure of the Yemeni economy.
Increased investments in the telecommunications sector and reflected the introduction of these investments for the deployment of multiple technologies and sophisticated means of communication and information systems and the connection of digital and fiber optic networks between cities and the introduction of the mobile network and the Internet and the role of the private sector to invest in the growing field of communications.
Agriculture, forestry and fishing in third place with an average growth in 2005 (4.29) that this productive sector of the food commodities and raw materials for many industries and sectors and more traditional and most important in terms of absorbing the labor force.
finance, insurance, real estate and business services comes ion fourth place, declining in 2005 by (-2.45%), compared to growth in the year 2004.
Electricity sector and the water come in fifth place, which reduced the growth rate for 2005 (-4.39) percentage points, compared to growth in the year 2005.
Banking Sector: the number of commercial banks and their branches have increased in |Yemen to (18) banks, including the Central Bank of Yemen, Bank of banks (12) commercial banks, (3) Islamic Bank, (2), and specialized banks and branches are distributed in various governorates, where the number of branches of these banks (214). With regard to the size of the banking activity, the volume of money supply grew at an average annual rate (19.14%) during the period 2000-2006 AD, and the rate of growth of demand deposits at an average annual rate of (20.31)%, and the growth rate of deposits in local currency at an average annual rate (27.58%), while the growth rate of deposits in foreign exchange (20.02)% during the same period.
Transport sector and its various branches constitute an important component of the infrastructure of the national economy and the mainstay of economic and social development of comprehensive road network is the lifeblood basis of development and growth, political leadership has given Yemen's transport sector considerable attention by linking Yemeni lands with local transport network since the length of implemented road network until the year 2005 (26361.8) kilometers (11394.8 km) asphalt roads, (14967.5) km graveled roads, and the rate of growth of road asphalt (62.4%) between (2000-200 5) and the rate of growth of road gravel 17 5%.
- maritime transport the State has sought to develop and expand the capacity of Yemeni ports.
- Yemen has a number of international ports including: Aden, Hodeidah - Yemen - Al Mukalla - nashtoon, with regard to fundamentals of air transport has been the development of many domestic airports and the development of a number of airports to become international airports where the number of international airports (6) airports namely: (Sana'a - Aden - Taiz, Hodeidah - Yemen - Al Rayyan - saioun), and contribute to this sector in the gross domestic product by between (10-13)% per annum.
Economic policy: the Republic of Yemen has adopted an economic policy based on free market mechanisms that aim to raise the level of private sector's involvement in the economy, redefine the role of the state in economic activity, and work to establish the rule of law ,build the institutional infrastructure, the remove obstacles facing the sector, and ensuring economic stability and encourage the private sector to play a leading role in the development process and achieve economic growth, through a set of financial, monetary and administrative policies and procedures that encourage free trade, and worked to reform tax legislation, customs, investment and judiciary to improve the overall climate investment, in addition to the implementation of the privatization program designed to expand the areas of economic activities and attract national and foreign funds.
Investment: The Yemeni economy is nascent in many areas; Yemen is thus , undergoing its initial stages in the process of economic and social development. This imposes significant burden especially with regard to the establishment of the infrastructure requirements of production and service sectors together. The focus of efforts has been devoted in recent times to infrastructural projects. However, investment in the Republic of Yemen is facing many fundamental problems, most importantly is funding due to limited resources of Yemen, Yemen is actively seeking ways to encourage and attract local and foreign investments to participate in the development of a legal infrastructure that can boost the economy and attract investment.
Free Zone: Free Zone represents the economic gateway of Yemen and the junction of Asia and Africa has been declared the city of Aden as a free zone in the year 1991 and issued the Law on free zones in the year 1993. The free zone gains strategic importance due to the location advantage of the port of Aden geographical as it is located directly on the main trade route around the world and the Middle East to Europe and America and is characterized by the possibility of providing transit services to East Africa and the Red Sea and Indian sub-continent and , Arabian Gulf. The storage and distribution area is suitable for Africa and the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf and represents a suitable storage area for the red, Arab seas and gulf.